Wednesday, August 20, 2008
Facts about Steroid Drug Testing
Steroid Drug testing has become common in the present standard procedures of drug testing and for any sports events. It is an artificial substance related to the male sexual hormones. Anabolic steroids are also referred as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It is a class of steroid hormones related to hormone testosterone. Anabolic refers to muscle building, and Androgenic refers to improving masculine personality.
Some athletes abuse anabolic steroids to enhance performance and improve their physical appearance. Generally, steroid are guzzled orally or injected, where the athletes and other abusers take them in the periodic cycles of weeks or months, rather than continuously. These drugs are available legally for treatment of patients, when the body produces low amount of testosterone. These drugs were also used to treat the AIDS patients and other body wasting diseases. However, steroid abuse can lead to serious health problems that may even cause to irreversible.
Steroid drug testing can be conducted at various places to examine the consumption of steroid for the employees, athletes, teens, or anyone. Drug testing is the method of testing the drug use of the students, which can be also considered as the method of its prevention. It has an absolute significance at the workplace, for pre-employment drug testing. The applicant should go to the company mentioned laboratory and get the drug testing done.
Reasons to test steroid drug usage
The steroid drug testing is a tool, which is used for deterring the athletes from illegal usage of steroids. The following are the some of the major reasons for testing the steroid drug usage:
• Steroid should not be used without the prescription. In its absence it could affect serious and adverse health issues.
• It can give an unfair advantage for the athletes over their competition and it could help to swindle the sports authority.
• Testing for steroid drug abuse can overwhelm their use among the students of higher school.
• Steroids are the drugs, which are used for providing the medical treatment for the patients who results in loss of lean muscle mass. Therefore, the test can detect the illicit usage of the steroids without a prescription. Author: NateRodnay.
A recently completed FDA study of the safety and efficacy of generic drugs should reassure consumers who became concerned as a result of the 1989 generic drug scandals. The FDA tested more than 400 samples of 24 different kinds of drugs from 73 different manufacturers. The drugs were selected because they are considered to have critically narrow therapeutic ranges. Drugs in this category are potentially ineffective and possibly harmful if they do not deliver to the body very specific amounts of the active drug. Most drugs have much wider margins for safety and efficacy than the 24 kinds tested.
As many as three sample batches from each manufacturer’s production of the 24 selected drugs products were tested for potency and other specifications. Out of the hundreds of batches only five from two manufacturers were found to have any problem. These were samples of aminophylline, a form of thes-ophylline used to treat Asthma. Both manufacturers have withdrawn these lots from the market and are working with the FDA to correct the problem.
FDA doesn’t allow a generic drug to exist without maintaining its equivalence with the brand version. It makes the medications go through acid tests. And only when they are proved to be hundred percent acceptable, FDA approves them.
Generic drugs pose the same active ingredients of their respective brand name drugs in the exact concentration. They even follow all the stringent good manufacturing practices. They just look different from their brand name in respect of structure and color. But these two factors are not the criterion of efficacy. Hence it doesn’t give anyone the license to doubt the same.
As the myths about GD are more popular than the facts, it doesn’t find a space of reliance sometimes. But nowadays when even doctors suggest for GD, one doesn’t have any reason to doubt its credibility. And the time has come now when people should make themselves aware of the positive characteristics of GD and stop the hue and cry about the same. Author: Mark Williams.
The fact is that with so much information passed around that is confusing to people it is often much easier to just continue smoking and hoping for a simple solution. Actually taking the necessary steps to really quit smoking is not easy. It means coming to terms with the fact that stopping smoking really is best for you, as well as your health.
I'm sure most, if not all smokers are well aware that giving up smoking will lead to a dramatic improvement in their health, but figuring out how to quit smoking and beat the addiction is never that easy. There are distractions and temptations every where we go, so it's hardly surprising the failure rate of quitting smoking is so high.
Tip #1 You need a good reason to quit. Simply deciding to quit because the sky is blue is not a sufficient reason. The need to quit smoking is obvious, but the desire to quit needs to come from inside in order for the process to be successful.
Tip #2 Look for small rewards that you can give yourself as you make progress. You are not likely to just quit cold turkey with no complications. Set up small rewards that will help you to want to make progress towards ultimately quitting. This can be a great motivation to keep you on target.
Tip #3 Draw up a plan of action for your quitting strategy. Pick the stop smoking program that suits you best and be prepared to stick with it. Give your plan a six week run. If you haven't quit after that, try another program or method.
Tip #4 Spend some time to deal with any issues that you may be facing. If your smoking helps to alleviate your stress levels, look at alternative ways you can combat that stress so that you don't need to rely on cigarettes anymore for it.
Tip #5 Set up a punishment for yourself. For example, if you generally stop at Starbucks each day for a coffee you might consider skipping that on days when you have fallen short of your goals for smoking. Whatever punishment you select, make sure it is something that you care about.
Tip #6 Seek out help from your friends and family. You need support as you are trying to quit, and this will help you to ensure that you are not alone in the entire process.
Tip #7 Look for someone to quit with you. If you are entirely on your own, you are going to be much more likely to slip back into smoking. If someone is working with you and holding you accountable, you are more likely to struggle to succeed. Working to quit smoking is not easy, but hard tasks are much easier to accomplish with a partner.
Tip #8 Don't let yourself get tired. If you're not getting enough sleep, it's going to make your task of quitting smoking even harder. You no doubt already know what it's like to be tired. Don't make giving up smoking any harder than it already is.
Tip #9 Aim to quit for good. This might seem a bit strange, but if you are just planning to quit for a weekend you are not going to put much effort into the process. If you are planning to quit for good, a lot more time and effort is going to go into the process as well as your plan to quit.
Tip #10 Make of list of things you can do to take your mind of cigarettes. You know that when you have thought about cigarettes in the past, you thought about lighting up. You now need to get rid of those thoughts as quickly as possible by focussing your mind on other things. Author: GillianRodenback.
Many people are aware that simple things like the smell of lemon smells clean and peppermint is often an aroma that reminds us of freshness and energy. But the actual amount of aromatherapy options out there can be overwhelming and there are quite a few things that those not steeped in knowledge of aromatherapy may not be aware of.
Some Oils Are Dangerous
Did you know that aromatherapy shouldn`t be used with all organic essential oils? Some oils are actually toxic and this may not be noted by the seller. Essential oils such as wormwood, camphor and rue are actually bad for you and shouldn`t ever be applied to the skin. It`s always good to know which oils shouldn`t be used in aromatherapy.
Other toxic herbs that shouldn`t be used with aromatherapy include wintergreen, sweet birth, Spanish broom, arnica, pennyroyal, onion, garlic and bitter almond. You may wish to talk to a professional before starting in on any aromatherapy work, just to be sure you know which oils are safe and which shouldn`t be used.
Aromatherapy Isn`t Just Mental
A common misconception is that aromatherapy is only a way to help your state of mind. It`s far more than that, though and you`ll find that some of the simplest smells can actually have a physical effect on your body, especially when applied to the skin. It`s important not to apply pure essential oil directly to the skin, you`ll need a carrier oil, first so it won`t burn you.
Drops of lavender oil on a pillow can induce sleep and a massage with peppermint is great for stimulating blood flow and waking you up. These herbs have physical effects, not just emotional or mental ones. Tea tree oil is perhaps one of the best known essential oils and is commonly used to heal all manner of maladies by simply applying it to the affected area.
The Methods of Aromatherapy
The great thing about aromatherapy is that if you don`t enjoy massage or prefer not to use a specific method of diffusing the smell, there are always other options.
Massage with an essential oil in a carrier oil can be very invigorating or relaxing, depending on the smells chosen. Diffusers are some of the most common methods of spreading the scent and consist of a heater (often a candle) and a container for the oil. Sometimes the oil is added to wax chips that release the scent as they melt. There are also aromatherapy candles on the market and sprays. You can also add a couple of drops of essential oil to a sink or tub of hot water or even onto a handkerchief or cloth to tuck inside your pillowcase or pocket.
Aromatherapy is a very useful way to treat problems or to enhance a state of mind. If you find that you are drowsy in the morning when you need to get ready for work, it can be a great idea to have a diffuser ready to go with an invigorating aroma. Likewise, a soothing one at bedtime eases the transition from being wide awake to sleep and has been used by insomniacs for hundreds of years now. Aromatherapy is a great way to connect with your family, as well, using their sense of smell to draw them in. Author: AmyNut.
Chemistry Make Up of Ethanol and Trifluoroethanol
Ethanol is also known as drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, or ethyl alcohol. It is a flammable and colorless chemical compound. The alcohol in beverages with alcohol is also known as ethanol. Many times, Ethanol is referred to simply as "alcohol", although that distinction is not always quite correct. It has the molecular formula of EtOH, CH3CH2OH, C2H5OH, and is also known by its empirical formula of C2H6O. Ethanol is classified as being an alcohol. This means that the carbon that is attached to its hydroxyl group is a carbon which has at least two hydrogen atoms that are attached to it also. Ethanol has a hydroxyl proton that is weakly acidic, even more so than water.
Trifluoroethanol, on the other hand, is an fluoro organic compound. It has the formula of CF3CH2OH. It is also known as TFE, and is sometimes called trifluoroethyl alcohol. It is also colorless, but is a liquid compound that is water-miscible. It is often confused with Ethanol because Trifluoroethanol smells similar to Ethanol. Trifluoroethanol is extremely acidic, much more acidic than ethanol. It is therefore able to form stable compounds with other heterocycles, through hydrogen bonding.
Creation of Ethanol and Trifluoroethanol
Ethanol is created by the fermentation of sugar. This is almost the earliest organic reaction that is known to man. In fact, this organic reaction, and the intoxicating effects that consuming Ethanol have had on the body, have been known since ancient times. Ethanol is also used in industry, and this type of ethanol is produced from petroleum refining.
Trifluoroethanol, on the other hand, is produced industrially. It is formed by the process of hydrogenation – or the process of the reduction of hydride derivatives of esters or acid chloride. These derivatives of trifluoroacetic acid are what produce Trifluoroethanol. Trifluoroethanol can also be produced by hydrogenolysis of certain compounds. These are the compounds of the genetic formula CF3-CHOH-OR.
Uses of Ethanol and Trifluoroethanol
Ethanol has been used for many years as a solvent for substances that are intended to come into contact with humans. This includes lots of different things, such as scents, flavorings, medicines, or colorings. It is also a solvent in chemistry. This is because it is extremely versatile – meaning that it can be mixed with water and many other organic solvents. Some of these include acetic acide, benzene, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether, glycerol, ethylene glycol, pyridine, toluene, and nitromethane. It can also be mixed with aliphatic chlorides. These include trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene.
Ethanol and water mixed together create several unusual phenomena. It is able to reduce the surface tension of water. It also forms an azeotrope or constant-boiling mixture when it is mixed with water.
However, most notably Ethanol is used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. It is used for motor fuel, and also for a fuel additive. This happens all over the world, but Brazil has the highest percentage of Ethanol that is found in fuels. 20% of the fuel is ethanol. In the United States, a mixture of 85% Ethanol has been introduced as a fuel for cars. Cars must be created with the ability to use this fuel.
Trifluoroethanol, on the other hand, is used as a solvent in organic chemistry. Most notably, Trifluoroethanol is used in oxidations of sulfur compounds that use hydrogen peroxide. Trifluoroethanol is also used in biology. It is a co-solvent in the protein folding process that is used with NMR spectroscopy. This is because TFE can solubilize proteins and also peptides. It has a very strong effect on the structure of proteins, which is a three dimensional structure. This effect allows Trifluoroethanol to be used in these situations and to be used to create solutions with proteins. Trifluoroethanol is also used industrially. It is used in these situations as a solvent for nylon. This allows the nylon to be changed and molded. Trifluoroethanol is also used in several applications in the pharmaceutical field.
Although Ethanol and Trifluoroethanol smell the same, and are both used as solvents, they are actually quite different. Understanding this difference allows companies and researchers to use both of these compounds to their greatest overall potentials. Author: Stephanie Larkin.
Friday, August 8, 2008
After years of drug abuse, Vicki Lynn Marshall finally met her end with a deadly combination of prescription and over-the-counter drugs. The jury’s still out on whether the cause of death was accidental or otherwise, but one thing is certain – had Vicki Lynn completed a successful drug rehab long ago, she would likely be alive today.
For Vickie Lynn, the spiral to the autopsy table started years ago. Drug and alcohol abuse, dependency, and perhaps addiction, were part of her lifestyle. But when a series of adverse personal events led her to combine several prescription drugs, she was physically pushed over the edge.
The long list on the pathologist’s report was shocking. At the time of her death, she had consumed not two or three, or even four drugs – the autopsy found nine different prescription drugs and one powerful over-the-counter medication, at least five or six of which cascaded into the next, adding to and increasing their effects:
1. Cipro, a powerful antibiotic used to handle bacterial and viral infections
2.Chloral hydrate, a sedative and hypnotic to help her sleep
3. Benadryl, an OTC antihistamine
4. Four powerful tranquilizers
6. Topiramate, an anticonvulsant now prescribed for migraines
Although the antibiotic was obviously needed to handle an infection, the sedatives and tranquilizers were indicative of needing drug rehab to get down to the bottom of what was causing the drug abuse. And the sedatives and tranquilizers, along with the antihistamine, atropine and Topiramate, are what actually killed her - each of them depresses respiration and circulation and, in Vicki Lynn’s case, these systems became so depressed they simply shut down. “She didn't suffer,” the pathologist said, “she went to sleep."
According to her autopsy records, Vickie Lynn Marshall died of an “acute combined drug intoxication” complicated by two minor infections, neither of which was dangerous if treated properly. Taken singly, none of the drugs was life-threatening, and none was an overdose.
Could Vicki Lynn’s life have been saved? Probably everything possible was done in the end but, factually, the problem started years ago – when she became dependant on drugs and alcohol. Had Vicki Lynn, or someone who cared about her, recognized the signs and made sure she got through a drug rehab program that addressed the issues behind her drug abuse, she may not have turned to drugs when events seemed to conspire against her and she may be alive today.
Vicki Lynn’s story is not unusual - millions of people depend on prescription drugs. But, as we can see from Vicki Lynn’s story, some of them can be dangerous. If someone you care about is dependant on or addicted to prescription drugs, find a successful drug rehab program. Don’t let them end up on the autopsy table like Vicki Lynn Marshall – who you may know as Anna Nicole Smith. By Rod Mc Taggart.
The FDA approved Actiq for cancer patients who suffer from severe spikes of pain not controlled by their long-acting chronic pain medication. However, one study found that of the 187,076 prescriptions filled over a six-month period, only 1 percent were written by oncologists. Widespread OxyContin addiction has proven that prescription painkillers have high potential for abuse and it appears that Actiq is following in its footsteps.
To date, Actiq prescriptions for non-cancer pain has led to at least 127 deaths – including two children who confused the drug for candy. Another 47 deaths were linked to overdoses. Actiq’s manufacturer, Cephalon, Inc., has also reported 91 serious, nonfatal incidents ranging from respiratory distress to severe dehydration.
Over the last few years, Actiq on the street has been linked hundreds of overdose deaths and injuries and drug abuse treatment centers across the country have reported increasing numbers of lollipop addicts turning up for drug rehab. Known by abusers as "perc-o-pops" or simply “lollipops”, Actiq is usually obtained through forged prescriptions or bought from people with legitimate prescriptions.
Although it is legal for doctors to prescribe a drug for a purpose other than which it was approved, the situation has gotten out of hand.
This drug is so addictive that one woman spent her entire pregnancy on “one big high sucking lollipops” until she gave birth. She was prescribed the drug for headaches. Needless to say, her baby was also born with an addiction to this powerful narcotic. The mother struggled with Actiq addiction for several more months after giving birth, and ended up in jail for forging a prescription for the drug.
She finally entered a successful drug rehab program to get help and, really, with a drug this dangerous, that’s your only hope. And with the death and other incident toll rising, the sooner the better.
By Rod MacTaggart